Skip to Main Content

Research, Statistics, Writing, Dissertation & Publishing

A guide for students and faculty in the pursuit of Research, Statistics, Writing, Dissertation & Publishing.

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)

PRISMA is an evidence-based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PRISMA primarily focuses on the reporting of reviews evaluating the effects of interventions, but can also be used as a basis for reporting systematic reviews with objectives other than evaluating interventions (e.g. evaluating aetiology, prevalence, diagnosis or prognosis).

Licensed under Creative Commons for unrestricted use and distribution

PRISMA seminal research articles

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) expanded checklist

This expanded checklist details elements recommended for reporting for each PRISMA 2020 item. Non-italicized elements are considered ‘essential’ and should be reported in the main report or as supplementary material for all systematic reviews (except for those preceded by “If…”, which should only be reported where applicable). Elements written in italics are ‘additional’, and while not essential, provide supplementary information that may enhance the completeness and usability of systematic review reports. Note that elements presented here are an abridged version of those presented in the explanation and elaboration paper (BMJ 2021;372:n160), with references and some examples removed. Consulting the explanation and elaboration paper is recommended if further clarity or information is required.

An Introduction to the PRISMA 2020 Checklist for Systematic Reviews Tutorial

Part 1: Introduction to PRISMA-S: why and how to use it - Tutorial

Part 2: Differences between PRISMA 2009 and PRISMA-S - Tutorial

Part 3: Questions and answers - Tutorials