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DOIs and URLs


Format recommended by the International DOI Federation:


If the Digital Object Identifier, (DOI)  is not listed, it might be found via a DOI locator.

If the DOI is longer than you prefer, try the  DOI and URL shortner.


Basic rules and preferred link options for digital content:

If the source has a DOI, use the DOI.

If the source does not have a DOI, use the permalink.

If the source has neither a DOI or a permalink, use the URL.

Example of DOI and permalink from a database record.


View the APA Style Center's guidance on DOIs and URLs

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Writing Center@AEC Citation Help