Click on each type of research study to see a research article example.
APA Style JARS Supplemental Glossary (2019)This glossary provides supplemental information on terms used in APA Style JARS and is meant to supplement Chapter
3 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition. It is not an exhaustive list of all
terms employed in quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods research, nor does it include all possible definitions for
each term; definitions in addition to or different from those reported in this glossary may be found in other sources.
a nonexperimental design that can be prospective or retrospective. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled before the potential causal event has occurred. In a retrospective cohort study, the study begins after the dependent event occurs.
an experimental design in which multiple measures are collected over a period of time from two or more groups of different ages (birth cohorts), ethnicities, or other factos. These designs combine aspects of longitudinal design and cohort-sequential design.
a study that involves the observation of a variable or group of variables in the same cases or individuals using the same set of measurements (or attributes) over a period of time (i.e., at multiple times or occasions). A longitudinal study that evaluates a group of randomly chosen individuals is referred to as a panel study, whereas a longitudinal study that evaluates a group of individuals possessing some common characteristic (usually age) is referred to as a cohort study.
This multiple observational structure may be combined with almost any other research design—ones with and without experimental manipulations, randomized clinical trials, or any other study type.
Also known as "longitudinal research," "longitudinal design."
a sampling method in which cases are selected for inclusion in experiments or other research based on their exposure to a risk factor. Participants are then followed to see if a condition of interest develops.
approaches to research used to generate knowledge about human experience and/or action, including social processes. These research methods typically produce descriptive (non-numerical) data, such as observations of behavior or personal accounts of experiences. The goal of gathering qualitative data is to examine how individuals perceive the world from different vantage points.
Also known as "qualitative design," "qualitative inquiry," "qualitative method," "qualitative study."
Qualitative methods share four central characteristics:
Involve the analysis of natural language and other forms of human expression rather than the translation of meaning into numbersCentralize an iterative process in which data are analyzed and meanings are generated in a circular and self-correcting process of checking and refining findingsSeek to present findings in a manner that emphasizes the study's context and situation in timeRecursively combine inquiry with methods that require researchers' reflexivity (i.e., self-examination) about their influence upon the research process.
a form of inquiry in which qualitative research findings about a process or experience are aggregated or integrated across research studies. Aims can involve synthesizing qualitative findings across primary studies, generating new theoretical or conceptual models, identifying gaps in research, or generating new questions.
approaches to research in which observed outcomes are numerically represented. These research methods rely on measuring variables using a numerical system, analyzing measurements using statistical models, and reporting relationships and associations among the studied variables. The goal of gathering quantitative data is to understand, describe, and predict the nature of a phenomenon, particularly through the development of models and theories.
Also known as "quantitative design," "quantitative inquiry," "quantitative method," "quantitative study."
a technique for synthesizing the results of multiple studies of a phenomenon by combining the effect size estimates from each study into a single estimate of the combined effect size or into a distribution of effect sizes. Effect size estimates from individual studies are the inputs to the analyses. Although meta-analyses are ideally suited for summarizing a body of literature in terms of impact, limitations, and implications, they are limited by having no required minimum number of studies or participants. Information of potential interest may also be missing from the original research reports upon which the procedure must rely.
an experimental design in which patients are randomly assigned to a group that will receive an experimental treatment, such as a new drug, or to one that will receive a comparison treatment, a standard-of-care treatment, or a placebo. The random assignment occurs after recruitment and assessment of eligibility but before the intervention. There may be multiple experimental and comparison groups, but each patient is assigned to one group only.
the study begins after the dependent event occurs; a technique in which participants or cases from the general population are selected for inclusion in experiments or other research based on their previous exposure to a risk factor or the completion of some particular process. Participants are then examined in the present to see if a particular condition or state exists, often in comparison to others who were not exposed to the risk or who did not complete the particular process.
Please consult the following sources for more information on these types of studies and terminology related to the studies.
This webpage provides supplemental information on the terms used in APA Style JARS. This glossary is meant to supplement Chapter 3 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition.
It is not an exhaustive list of all terms employed in quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods research, nor does it include all possible definitions for each term; definitions in addition to or different from those reported in this glossary may be found in other sources.