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Citation Guide Quick Links (APA 7th, MLA 9th, CMOS 17th, and More)

The 911 to Citation Styles

Basic Information

To cite sources you need certain "parts" of the source. Parts are found in the database you searched to find the source. For books in the Kaufman Library and other USG libraries, the information is usually available in the GIL-Find catalog. The front and back of the title page of a book also contains these parts. Once you have all the parts, they are then arranged in a citation style.

EXAMPLE from the GGC GIL Library Catalog:

To cite sources you need certain "parts" of the source. For articles, you need the author, title, journal title, volume, issue, page numbers, date of publication, doi or permalink, and the database name(sometimes optional). Parts are found in the database you used to find the source and often in the source itself, usually on the first page of an articleOnce you have all the parts, they are then arranged in a citation style.


EXAMPLE  from a GGC Library Research Database:


EXAMPLE from first page of article: (Click words or image for larger image)


North Carolina State University Libraries. (2014, August). Citation: A (Very) Brief Introduction. [Video].


Glossary of Terms Related to Citations

Term Definition
ACS American Chemical Society, creators of the ACS citation style.
AEC Academic Enhancement Center. The place you can get writing, math and other subject help at GGC. W-Building, Room 1160.
APA American Psychological Association, creators of the APA citation style.
Bibliographic Relating to the parts that make up the citation. Can refer to author, title, publisher, year, place of publications, volume, issue, page numbers.
Bibliography A listing of sources used by an author of a a book or article. Located at the end of the book, chapter or article.
Chicago Chicago Manual of Style (a type of citation style).
Citation The bibliographic information that refers to a larger work. For example: Author, year, title, publisher, place. 
DOI A digital object identifier. It can be any object, digital or not, but in regards to citing, it identifies a journal article,electronic book, or other source.
Hanging indent The second and following lines of a bibliographic citation in APA and MLA  style must be indented.
Journal A scholarly publication  containing articles written and reviewed by experts in the field of the journal.
Magazine A popular publication containing articles of interest to the general public. Written by journalists and writers.
MLA Modern Language Association, creators of the MLA citation style.
Newspaper  A publication with national, international, and local news relating to the city of publication; typically written by journalists and writers.Generally published daily or weekly.
Periodical  A publication that is published periodically, usually regular intervals. Daily (Newspapers), Weekly (Newsweek), Monthly (Southern Living), Quarterly, Annually.



A url that is stable and consistently points to a specific source. Also known as a stable link, durable link, or persistent link. This symbol in a database record links to the permalink: 

References In APA Style, the list at the end of your paper that includes the works you used and/or quoted in your paper.
Turabian A style type which is a modified version of the Chicago Style. It is often referred to as the student version of Chicago Style. It is used for unpublished works.
Works Cited In MLA Style, the list at the end of your paper that includes the works you quoted in your paper.
Works Consulted Sources consulted but  not quoted or used for information in your paper. For example, you need to write about an inventor so you use the Dictionary of Technology to decide whom to write about. You consulted the source but did not take any notes from it. 


BEWARE: Most databases have an option to cite the sources that you use by clicking on a Cite link. Usually the link is on the right side or top of the page. We recommend that you use these tools; however, you must check for accuracy of the citation as it is presented in the database.

Often the database creators have made mistakes. For example, they might write the authors' names in ALL CAPS or maybe the spacing is not correct. Use cite links to gather your parts but make sure you check the format in the appropriate style guide before submitting your paper.



Databases usually have these options

for gathering a list of sources and their parts: print,

email (select your citation style), save, cite (and then copy and paste),

export and permalink.


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