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APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): DOIs and URLs

APA 7th Edition

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AEC Writing Center

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Trained professional and peer tutors provide one-on-one or group tutoring sessions:

  • Answering your writing and citation questions
  • Providing feedback on your drafts
  • Showing you strategies for brainstorming, organizing, drafting and revising

DOIs and URLs

 

If the Digital Object Identifier, (DOI)  is not listed, it might be found via a DOI locator.

If the DOI is longer than you prefer, try the  DOI and URL shortner.

 

Basic rules and preferred link options for digital content:

If the source has a DOI, use the DOI.

If the source does not have a DOI, use the permalink.

If the source has neither a DOI or a permalink, use the URL.

Example of DOI and permalink from a database record.