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APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): APA (7th) Basic Rules

APA 7th Edition

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APA (7th) Basic Rules


The basics of APA style in-text citations

APA in-text citations must be used when:

  • Quoting directly from the source.
  • Summarizing content from the source.
  • Paraphrasing content or sentences from the source.

If it is not your original thought, you MUST cite it.

Basic parenthetical citation formatting: (Author, year, p. page number). One space after a comma and period.


Examples of APA style in-text citations for summarizing and paraphrasing: 


One work, one author:

  • APA style uses the author-date format of in-text citation (Smith, 2010, p. 45).

When the authors' names are in the narrative, use this format:

  • In 2010, Smith (45) stated that APA requires that references are listed alphabetically on the reference page.


One work, multiple authors:

If a work has two authors, use an ampersand (&) between the two last names.

  • Writing in APA style takes practice (Jones & Smith, 2007, p. 59).

When the authors names are in your narrative, use the word and between the authors' last names.

  • Jones and Smith (2007, p. 59) found...

If a work has three, or more authors, cite the first author, plus et al.

  • Citing in APA Style takes patience but you can do it (Jones et al.,2007, p. 59).  

In the narrative, use this format:

  • Jones et al. (2007, p. 59) also stated that in addition to patience, citing in APA Style takes attention to detail. 


‚ÄčIf you have additional questions, please refer to the APA style manuals or the following sources: