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Citation Guide (APA, MLA and More): In-Text & Quotes (APA 6th and MLA 8th)

6th Edition APA, 7th Edition APA, 8th Edition MLA

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In-Text Citations, Direct Quotes, Block Quotes (APA 6th and MLA 8th)

The basics of APA style in-text citations

APA in-text citations must be used when:

  • Quoting directly from the source.
  • Summarizing content from the source.
  • Paraphrasing content or sentences from the source.

If it is not your original thought, you MUST cite it.

Examples of APA style in-text citations for summarizing and paraphrasing: 

One work, one author:

  • APA style uses the author-date format of in-text citation (Smith, 2010).

When the authors' names are in the narrative, use this format:

  • Smith (2010) states that APA requires that references are listed alphabetically on the reference page.

 

One work, multiple authors:

If a work has two authors, use an ampersand (&) between the two last names.

  • Writing in APA style takes practice (Jones & Smith, 2007).

When the authors names are in your narrative, use the word and between the authors' last names.

  • Jones and Smith (2007) found...

 

If a work has three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time; in all citations following, include the last name of the first author, followed by et al.

  • Citing in APA Style takes patience but you can do it (Jones, Smith, Doe, Green, 2007). [first time]
  • Citing in APA Style takes patience but you can do it (Jones et al., 2007). [second time]

In the narrative, use this format:

  • Jones et al. (2007) also stated that in addition to patience, citing in APA Style takes attention to detail. 

 

If a work has six or more authors, list the first surname followed by et al. 

  • Writing a well organized college paper takes time and diligence.(Jones et al. 2007)

​In the narrative, use this format:

  • Jones et al. (2007) teaches that writing a well organized college paper takes time and diligence. 

 

If you have additional questions, please refer to the APA style manuals or the following sources:

Purdue Owl In-Text Citations: The Basics 

University of Maryland Global Campus - APA Examples

 

The basics of MLA style in-text citations

MLA in-text citations must be used when:

  • Quoting directly from the source.
  • Summarizing content from the source.
  • Paraphrasing content or sentences from the source.

If it is not your original thought, you MUST cite it.

Examples of MLA style in-text citations for summarizing and paraphrasing:

One work, one author:

  • MLA style uses the author-page format of in-text citation (Smith 54).

When the same source is used a subsequent time in the same paragraph, use only the page number.

  • MLA  requires that references are listed alphabetically on the Works Cited page (110).

When the authors' name is in the narrative, use this format:

  • Smith states that MLA requires that references are listed alphabetically on the reference page (54).

 

One work, multiple authors:

  • In parenthetical citations use the word "and" in the in-text citation with more than one author (Hacker and Sommers 460). 
  • Hacker and Sommers state that if no page number is available such as in a website then it is acceptable to not provide it (460).

 

If you have additional questions, please refer to the MLA Style Manuals or the following sources:

Purdue Owl In-Text Citations: The Basics 

University of Maryland Global Campus - MLA Examples 

 

APA Direct Quoting

If directly quoting, include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference.Introduce the quote with a phrase like according to or state the author's last name.

  • According to Smith (2017), "First-year college students struggle with the lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (p. 23).
  • Smith (2017) discovered "first-year college students struggle with lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (p. 23); what does that mean for college health officers, librarians, and teachers?

If you do not name the author in the sentence, list it with the date and page numbers after the quotation.

  • She said, "First-year college students struggle with lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (Roberts, 2017, p. 199), and listed several solutions.

 

MLA Direct Quoting

Direct quotes are enclosed in quotation marks.

For quotations less than 4 lines,  the author can either be placed at the beginning or the end of the sentence. Regardless of choice, the page number is always placed at the end of the phrase. See examples below to compare. 

  • Some experts say, "First-year college students struggle with lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (Roberts 23).
  • According to Roberts,  "First- year college students struggle with the lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (23).

 

 
 

 

 


APA Block Text

For quotations that are more than 40 words, use a block text format  and no quotation marks. Block texts are single spaced (instead of double spaced). Begin the block text with a phrase introducing the author then a colon: at the end of the block text place the appropriate punctuation mark then. (p.page number)

 

Shierling found the following:

Librarians and writing tutors enjoy helping students thrive. Librarians connect students with information and writing tutors help students become excellent written communicators.  Research shows that good readers make good writers. Not only is reading important to obtaining information to use in the writing process, it also helps the writer know what sounds right. People who read a lot recognize oddities in sentence structure and paper layout. They notice when a paragraph or paper is missing something and needs more information. They also notice when a paragraph or paper adequately communicates the writers intention. Simply stated, after reading a piece, the reader either has an "AHA YES!" moment or either a "Ehhhhh yuck" moment. (p.21) 

Additional help: APA Blocks of Text (Purdue OWL) 

MLA Block Text

For quotations that are more than 4 lines (3 lines of verse), use a block text format and no quotation marks. Block texts are double spaced. At the end of the block text place the appropriate punctuation mark then (author name page number).

Librarians and writing tutors enjoy helping students thrive. Librarians connect students with information and writing

tutors help students become excellent written communicators.  Research shows that good readers make good writers.

Not only is reading important to obtaining information to use in the writing process, but it helps the writer know what

sounds right. People who read a lot recognize oddities in sentence structure and paper layout. They notice when a

paragraph or paper is missing something and needs more information. They also notice when a paragraph or paper

adequately communicates the writers intention. Simply stated, after reading a piece, the reader either has an "AHA

YES!" moment or either a "Eehhhhh yuck"  moment. (Shierling 21)

 

Additional help: MLA Blocks of Text (Purdue OWL)